Dementia is a gradual and progressive decline in cognitive function severe enough to impair a person’s ability to carry out their daily activities. It is an organic brain syndrome characterized by less of intellectual ability. Although many definitions of dementia exist, most include impairment of cognition, social and occupational functioning and performance in activities of daily living.
ICD-10 defines dementia as a syndrome due to disease of the brain usually of chronic or progressive in nature. In which, there is disturbances of multiple higher cortical functions including memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculating, learning capacity, language and judgment and consciousness is not douded. Occasionally deterioration in emotional control social behaviour or motivation also seen. Dementia is characterized by multiple cognitive defects that include impairment in memory without impairment of consciousness.
The cognitive functions that can be affected in dementia include general intelligence, learning, memory, language, problem solving, orientation, perception,attention,concentration,judgement and social abilities. Dementia can be considered as a global impairment of intelligence, memory and personality in clear consciousness. It can occur in any age but become more frequent with age,with a prevalence of 5%-10% in the over 65s and 20% in the over 80s. It is seen more frequently in women, due to their increased longevity living.
The disorder may be progressive or static, permanent or reversible. An underlying cause is always assumed, although in rare cases it is impossible to determine a specific cost. The potential reversibility of dementia is a related to the underlying pathological condition and to the availability and application of effective treatment. Approximately 15 percent of people of the dementia have reversible illness if treatment is initiated before irreversible damage take place.